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OPEC: The common abbreviation for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which is an international organization of more than a dozen nations located primarily in the Middle East, Africa, and Central America that controls a sizeable portion of the world's petroleum reserves. This control over oil reserves gives OPEC significant market control, which it has been inclined to exert from time to time. The most noted time was the 1970s. OPEC raised oil prices from a scant $2 to $3 a barrel in the early 1970s to over $30 a barrel by the end of the decade. As an group of independent oil-producing nations seeking to monopolize the market, OPEC represents a textbook example of an cartel.

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Lesson 20: Oligopoly | Unit 5: Evaluation Page: 22 of 24

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  • The two most noted goods from oligopoly are:

    Innovations:

  • Of the four market structures, oligopoly is the one most prone toward innovation.
  • And innovations are what advance the level of technology, expands production capabilities, promotes economic growth, and leads to higher living standards.

    Scale Economies: Oligopoly firms are also able to take advantage of scale economies that reduce production costs and prices.

  • As large firms, they can "mass produce" at low average cost.


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FOUR-SECTOR AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE

A graphical depiction of the relation between aggregate expenditures by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) and the level of aggregate income or production. The four-sector aggregate expenditures line combines consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports. The slope of this aggregate expenditures line is based on the marginal propensity to consume, adjusted for marginal propensities of the other expenditures that are assumed to be induced when constructing the line. This is one of three aggregate expenditures lines based on the number of sectors included. The others are the two-sector aggregate expenditures line and the three-sector aggregate expenditures line.

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BEIGE MUNDORTLE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius looking to buy either a desktop calendar with all federal and state holidays highlighted or a half-dozen helium filled balloons. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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