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LORENZ CURVE: In general, a diagram illustrating the degree of inequality and concentration for a group. This is accomplished by plotting the cumulative percentage of a total amount obtained by cumulative percentages of the group. A common use of the Lorenz curve is the distribution of income, in which the cumulative percentage of income is measured on the vertical axis and the cumulative percentage of the population is measured on the horizontal axis. Perfect equality is indicated by a 45-degree line (that is, 10% of the population has 10% of the income, 20% of the population has 20% of the income, etc.). The actual Lorenz curve inevitably lies below the 45-degree line. The extent that the Lorenz curve differs from the 45-degree line indicates the extent of inequality.

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Lesson 11: Elasticity Basics | Unit 1: The Concept Page: 3 of 25

Topic: Quantity Changes <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

  • While the elasticity concept can be applied to several different areas, when applied to the market, elasticity captures the relation between price and quantity.

  • The force activating the change is price and the variable that's being stretched is quantity.

  • The importance of elasticity for market analysis comes into play in the following way:

    • First, market shocks triggered by determinant-induced shifts of the demand and supply curves create shortages and surpluses.
    • Second, governments are fond of placing taxes or price controls on markets.

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IN-KIND PAYMENTS

A payment, usually in exchange for the productive efforts of resources, that takes the form of goods and services produced by the resource buyer rather than the economy's standard monetary unit (that is, dollars). In other words, resource owners are compensated with a portion of the output that they help to produce. The standard method of compensation, which is illustrated by the circular flow model, is for a firm to pay resource owners using money revenue received from selling its production. Hence most factor payments are monetary payments. However, in some circumstances firms and resource owners find it more convenient to use actual production for compensation, eliminating the sell-production-for-money step.

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Potato chips were invented in 1853 by a irritated chef repeatedly seeking to appease the hard to please Cornelius Vanderbilt who demanded french fried potatoes that were thinner and crisper than normal.
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