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FEDERAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS ACT: Commonly abbreviated FICA, this act passed in 1939 established payroll deductions from wage-earning employees and the employers for the Social Security system. This is the noted Social Security tax that wage earners pay and which is then used to provide Social Security benefits to the elderly, disable, and qualified dependents.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Basics
  • Opportunity Cost
  • Cost Times Two
  • Profit Times Three
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Three Totals
  • Fixed And Variable
  • A Table Of Totals
  • Total Curves
  • TP And TVC
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Four More Measures
  • Three Averages
  • A Table Of Averages
  • Average Curves
  • One Marginal
  • A Marginal Table
  • The Marginal Curve
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Long-Run Cost
  • Doing The Long Run
  • A Choice Of Plants
  • Planning Curve
  • Scale Economies
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Previewing Supply
  • Production Stages
  • Marginal Cost
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Cost

    • The first unit of this lesson, The Basics, begins this our study with a review of the opportunity cost notion and how it relates to business activity.
    • In the second unit, Three Totals, we take a look at the three total cost measures, including total cost, total variable cost, and total fixed cost.
    • The third unit, Four More Measures, then presents four additional cost measures -- average total cost, average variable cost, average fixed cost, and marginal cost.
    • In the fourth unit, Long-Run Cost, we examine how scale economies and diseconomies affect cost in the long run.
    • The fifth and final unit, Previewing Supply, then closes this lesson by previewing the importance of cost, especially marginal cost, to the supply decision by a firm.

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    LAW OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE

    A principle that states that every nation, worker, or production entity has a production activity that incurs a lower opportunity cost than that of another nation, worker, or production entity, which means that trade between the two can be beneficial to both if each specializes in the production of a good with lower relative opportunity cost. This law is most often studied in the confines of international trade, but it also applies to labor and other types of production.

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    GREEN LOGIGUIN
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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time lost in your local discount super center trying to buy either a set of tires or a birthday gift for your grandfather. Be on the lookout for infected paper cuts.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    In the late 1800s and early 1900s, almost 2 million children were employed as factory workers.
    "When you play, play hard; when you work, don't play at all. "

    -- Theodore Roosevelt, 26th US president

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