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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Short-Run Production
  • Making Stuff
  • Two Inputs: Fixed and Variable
  • Two Runs: Short and Long
  • Two More Runs
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Production Measures
  • Total Product
  • Average Product
  • Marginal Product
  • THE Law
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Product Curves
  • Total Product Curve
  • Average Product Curve
  • Marginal Product Curve
  • THE Law Again
  • Production Stages
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Long-Run Production
  • Making Plans
  • Returns To Scale
  • Increasing Returns To Scale
  • Decreasing Returns To Scale
  • Constant Returns To Scale
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Supply
  • A Review
  • A Preview
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Production

    • The first unit of this lesson, Short-Run Production, begins our study by introducing a few basic concepts underlying production, especially short run, long run, fixed input, and variable input.
    • In the second unit, Production Measures, we take a look the three standard measures of production -- total product, average product, and marginal product.
    • The third unit, Product Curves, then presents graphical relations for these three measures -- total product curve, average product curve, and marginal product curve.
    • In the fourth unit, Long-Run Production, we examine the role returns to scale play in long-run production.
    • The fifth and final unit, Supply, then closes this lesson by previewing the importance of production to the supply decisions by firms.s

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    INCREASING-COST INDUSTRY

    A perfectly competitive industry with a positively-sloped long-run industry supply curve that results because expansion of the industry causes higher production cost and resource prices. An increasing-cost industry occurs because the entry of new firms, prompted by an increase in demand, causes the long-run average cost curve of each firm to shift upward, which increases the minimum efficient scale of production.

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    APLS

    GREEN LOGIGUIN
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the shopping mall looking to buy either a weathervane with a cow on top or a box of multi-colored, plastic paper clips. Be on the lookout for slightly overweight pizza delivery guys.
    Your Complete Scope

    This isn't me! What am I?

    Okun's Law posits that the unemployment rate increases by 1% for every 2% gap between real GDP and full-employment real GDP.
    "The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who cannot read them. "

    -- Mark Twain

    LRMC
    Long Run Marginal Cost
    A PEDestrian's Guide
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