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PIGOUVIAN TAX: A tax on an external cost, such as pollution, designed to use market forces to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. A. C. Pigou, one of the first economists to study the market failure of externalities, is credited with developing this tax system for internalizing costs external to the market. An external cost caused by pollution, for example, can be internalized if polluters pay a tax equal to the value of the external cost.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Price Taker
  • A Perfect Market
  • Characteristics
  • Revenue
  • Profit Maximization
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Short-Run Output
  • The Revenue Side
  • The Revenue Numbers
  • The Cost Side
  • Comparing Totals
  • Comparing Marginals
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Doing Graphs
  • Total Curves
  • Profit Curve
  • Marginal Curves
  • Dividing Revenue
  • Short-Run Alternatives
  • Short-Run Supply
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Long-Run Equilibrium
  • Long-Run Marginal Cost
  • Adjustment
  • Entry And Exit
  • Equilibrium Conditions
  • Long-Run Supply
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Evaluation
  • The Good
  • The Bad
  • Market Control
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Perfect Competition

    • The first unit of this lesson, Price Taker, begins this study with a look at the general structure of a perfectly competitive market.
    • In the second unit, Short-Run Output, we take a look at the short-run production decision faced by a perfectly competitive firm based on the cost and revenue numbers.
    • The third unit, Doing Graphs, then looks at the short-run production decision faced by a perfectly competitive firm using a graphical analysis of cost and revenue.
    • In the fourth unit, Long-Run Equilibrium, we examine the nature of long-run adjustment by a perfectly competition industry when all inputs are variable.
    • The fifth and final unit, Evaluation, then closes this lesson by considering the pros and cons of a perfectly competitive industry.

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    ASSUMPTIONS, KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS

    The macroeconomic study of Keynesian economics relies on three key assumptions--rigid prices, effective demand, and savings-investment determinants. First, rigid or inflexible prices prevent some markets from achieving equilibrium in the short run. Second, effective demand means that consumption expenditures are based on actual income, not full employment or equilibrium income. Lastly, important savings and investment determinants include income, expectations, and other influences beyond the interest rate. These three assumptions imply that the economy can achieve a short-run equilibrium at less than full-employment production.

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    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius looking to buy either a combination CD player, clock radio, and telephone (with answering machine) or a revolving spice rack. Be on the lookout for florescent light bulbs that hum folk songs from the sixties.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    A scripophilist is one who collects rare stock and bond certificates, usually from extinct companies.
    "Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness."

    -- Martin Luther King, Jr., clergyman

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