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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE LINE: A line representing the relation between aggregate expenditures and gross domestic product used in the Keynesian cross. The aggregate expenditure line is obtained by adding investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports to the consumption line. As such, the slope of the aggregate expenditure line is largely based on the slope of the consumption line (which is the marginal propensity to consume), with adjustments coming from the marginal propensity to invest, the marginal propensity for government purchases, and the marginal propensity to import. The intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line identifies the equilibrium level of output in the Keynesian cross.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Intro
  • Definition
  • A Few Examples
  • Market Control
  • Competition
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Four Types
  • A Continuum
  • Perfect Competition
  • Monopoly
  • Monopolistic Competition
  • Oligopoly
  • Other Structurres
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Getting Control
  • Profit Motivation
  • Entry Barriers
  • Product Differentiation
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Using Control
  • Takes And Makers
  • Demand Curves
  • Practices
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Government
  • Efficiency
  • Regulation
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Market Structures

    Our investigation into market structures lays the foundation for a closer examination of monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. This lesson takes a look at how markets are structured based on their competitiveness, the degree of market control held by firms, the acquisition of this market control, and the use market control.

    • The first unit of this lesson, Competition And Control, begins this lesson with a look at competition and market control.
    • In the second unit, Four Types, we examine the four basic types of market structures -- perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly.
    • The third unit, Getting Control, then looks at two key ways that firms are able to acquire or increase their market control -- product differentiation and entry barriers.
    • In the fourth unit, Using Control, we investigate what firms do when they have market control.
    • The fifth and final unit, Government, then closes this lesson by considering the role government plays in regulating market control.

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    PRICE CEILING

    A legally established maximum price that is imposed on a market BELOW the price that otherwise would be achieved in equilibrium. A price ceiling is placed on a market with the goal of keeping the price low, presumably based on the notion that the equilibrium price is too high. If imposed on a competitive market free of market failures, a price ceiling creates a shortage, or excess demand.

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    APLS

    BLUE PLACIDOLA
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the downtown area hoping to buy either a wall poster commemorating last Friday (you know why) or a country wreathe. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
    "The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there."

    -- Leslie Poles Hartley, Writer

    SIB
    Securities and Investment Board
    A PEDestrian's Guide
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