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OUTPUT GAPS: Recessionary and inflationary gaps created by differences between equilibrium real production achieved in the short-run aggregate market and full-employment real production. A recessionary gap occurs if short-run equilibrium real production is less than full-employment real production. An inflationary gap results if short-run real equilibrium production is greater than full-employment real production.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 5: Cause and Effect Page: 18 of 20

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  • Suppose we suspect an apparent correlation between jogging shoe sales and advertising expenditures. Does advertising cause greater shoe production and sales.
Series of events:
  1. Shoe companies increase advertising,
  2. Buyers realize that they want or need more shoes,
  3. Buyers buy more jogging shoes,
  4. Stores sell shoes and order more,
  5. Manufactures respond by making more jogging shoes,
  6. Jogging shoe sales and production are greater.

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INFLATION PROBLEMS

Two notable problems are associated with inflation--uncertainty and haphazard redistribution. Inflation, especially inflation that varies from month to month and year to year, makes long-term planning quite difficult. Prices, wages, taxes, interest rates, and other nominal values that enter into consumer, business, and government planning decisions can be significantly affected by inflation. Moreover, inflation tends to redistribute income and wealth in a haphazard manner--some people win and some people lose. This redistribution might not be that desired by society, failing to promote any of the basic economic goals of efficiency, equity, stability, growth, or full-employment.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway looking to buy either an AC adapter that won't fry your computer or a case for your designer sunglasses. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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North Carolina supplied all the domestic gold coined for currency by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia until 1828.
"Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly and get on with improving your other innovations. "

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