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BOARD OF GOVERNORS, CHAIRMAN: The head of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and the Federal Reserve System. This is the guy in charge of monetary policy and is considered to be one of the two or three most powerful people in terms of the national and global economy. The Chairman is one of the seven members of the Board and serves as Chairman for a five-year term. The Fed Chairman also serves as Chairman of the powerful Federal Open Market Committee, the Fed Committee that sets the course of monetary policy.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 5: Policies Page: 14 of 18

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Because markets are imperfect, government is prompted to intervene with economic policies.
  • Economic policies are government actions designed to affect economic activity and pursue one or more economic goals.
Policies can take the form of:
  • Laws passed by legislatures.
  • Administrative actions taken by elected executives.
  • Rules set forth by government agencies.
  • Decisions made through the courts.
The government has four types of policies.
  • Fiscal policy: Based on government's power to collect taxes from the public and spend those funds as it chooses. Used for income redistribution and macroeconomic performance.
  • Monetary policy: Based on government's centralized control of the money supply. Used for macroeconomic performance.
  • Regulatory policy: Based on government's ability to enact laws, rules and restrictions. Used for efficiency and equity
  • Judicial policy: Based on government's ability to enforce laws through the courts. Used for efficiency and equity

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AVERAGE FACTOR COST, MONOPSONY

Total factor cost per unit of factor input employed by a monopsony in the production of output, found by dividing total factor cost by the quantity of factor input. Average factor cost, abbreviated AFC, is generally equal to the factor price. However, using the longer term average factor cost makes it easier to see the connection to related terms, including total factor cost and marginal factor cost.

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Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
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