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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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Lesson 10: Gross Domestic Product | Unit 2: Looking Behind GDP Page: 8 of 25

Topic: Estimated Value <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Slice B includes economic production that does NOT involve market transactions.
  • The market value of nonmarket economic production for some goods can be estimated and included in GDP.
  • In-kind payments: This is nonmarketed production obtained by business owners or employees in lieu of money payment. Although no market transaction, GDP includes the estimated value of these transactions.
  • Owner-occupied housing: The value of owner-occupied housing services are not measured by market transaction. GDP includes the estimate the value of these services.

At least part of slice B is included in GDP.


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AD VALOREM TAX

A tax specified as a percentage of the price or value of a good, service, asset, or other activity. Ad valorem taxes tend to be broad based, imposed on activities such as income and retail sales. In fact, the two most important ad valorem taxes are income taxes and sales taxes. People pay a percentage of their incomes in income taxes or a percentage or the value of their purchases in sales taxes, regardless of the amount of time spent working or the quantities of goods purchases. An alternative is a per unit tax, with is a tax specified as a percentage of the physical quantity of a good.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time calling an endless list of 800 numbers looking to buy either several orange mixing bowls or clothing for your pet dog. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.
"How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world. "

-- Anne Frank, diarist

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