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January 16, 2018 

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FIXED EXCHANGE RATE: An exchange rate that's established at a given level and maintained through government (usually central bank) actions. To fix the exchange rate, a government must be willing to buy and sell currency in the foreign exchange market in whatever amounts are necessary. A fixed exchange rate typically disrupts a nation's balance of trade and balance of payments. If the exchange rate is fixed too low, then a government needs to sell it's currency in the foreign exchange market, and may end up expanding the money supply too much, which then causes inflation. If the exchange rate is fixed too high, then export sales to other countries are curtailed and the economy is likely to slide into a recession.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Measuring Production
  • An Indicator
  • Total Market Value
  • Final Goods and Services
  • Given Year
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Looking Behind GDP
  • Ins and Outs
  • Past and Future
  • Estimated Value
  • Home Production
  • Illegal Goods
  • GDP
  • Real GDP
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Two Views of GDP
  • Demand and Supply
  • Expenditures
  • Resources
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Measuring Income
  • National Income
  • Personal Income
  • IEBNR
  • IRBNE
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Issues
  • What It Does
  • What It Doesn't Do
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Gross Domestic Product

    This lesson investigates one of the most noted and important measures of macroeconomic activity -- gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures the total production of goods and services that, in principle, are available to satisfy consumers wants and needs. We see the ins and outs of the GDP measure. As a bonus, we also get a close look at several related measures of production and income, including net domestic product (NDP), national income (NI), personal income (PI), and disposable income (PI).

    • In the first unit of this lesson, we take a look at the process of measuring gross domestic product, including what, in principle, is being measure.
    • The second unit the turns to a detailed look at what IS included in GDP and what IS NOT included in the GDP based on the difference between market transactions and economic production.
    • With the third unit we take a look at the two views of measuring GDP -- expenditures and resource costs.
    • Moving on to the fourth unit, we get a look at the three related measures of income -- national income, personal income, and disposable income.
    • And finally, the fifth unit considers a few issues related to measuring GDP, including what BDP does measure and what GDP doesn't measure.

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    MARGINAL REVENUE, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

    The change in total revenue resulting from a change in the quantity of output sold. Marginal revenue indicates how much extra revenue a monopolistically competitive firm receives for selling an extra unit of output. It is found by dividing the change in total revenue by the change in the quantity of output. Marginal revenue is the slope of the total revenue curve and is one of two revenue concepts derived from total revenue. The other is average revenue. To maximize profit, a monopolistically competitive firm equates marginal revenue and marginal cost.

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    APLS

    ORANGE REBELOON
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a dollar discount store trying to buy either a really, really exciting, action-filled video game or a coffee cup commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for slow moving vehicles with darkened windows.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    In the early 1900s around 300 automobile companies operated in the United States.
    "Good humor is a tonic for mind and body. It is the best antidote for anxiety and depression. It is a business asset. It attracts and keeps friends. It lightens human burdens. It is the direct route to serenity and contentment."

    -- Grenville Kleiser, Author

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