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REGULATION: Government rules or laws that control the activities of businesses and consumers. The motivation for regulation is that businesses are inclined to do things that are harmful to the public--actions which need to be prevented or otherwise controlled. Regulation is essentially an extension of government's authority to protect one member of society from another. It tends to take one of two forms--(1) industry regulation that's intended to prevent firms from gaining and abusing excessive market control and (2) social regulation that seeks to protect consumers for problems caused by pollution, unsafe products, and the lack of information (market failure).

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Lesson 10: Gross Domestic Product | Unit 3: Two Views of GDP Page: 17 of 25

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In this unit, you should have learned something about:
  1. GDP can be measured in two different ways, from the demand or expenditure side and from the supply or resource side of the economy.
  2. From the expenditure side, the four sectors of the economy buy ALL current economic production and when aggregated give us GDP. This is summarized by the formula: GDP = C + I + G + (X-M).
  3. The calculation of GDP from the resource side of the economy is based on the fact that the revenue received for the sale of GDP is paid to or claimed by a factor of production.

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GOOD TYPES

The economy produces four distinct types of goods based on two key characteristics -- consumption rivalry and nonpayer excludability. Consumption rivalry arises if consumption of a good by one person prevents another from also consuming. Nonpayer excludability means potential consumers who do not pay for a good can be excluded from consuming. Private goods are rival in consumption and easily subject to the exclusion of nonpayers. Public goods are nonrival in consumption and the exclusion of nonpayers is virtually impossible. Near-public goods are nonrival in consumption and easily subject to exclusion. Common-property goods are rival in consumption and not easily subject to exclusion. Private goods can be efficiently exchanged through markets. Public, near-public and common-property goods cannot, but require some degree of government involvement for efficiency.

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PURPLE SMARPHIN
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale looking to buy either a coffee cup commemorating the first day of spring or a printer that works with your stockpile of ink cartridges. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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John Maynard Keynes was born the same year Karl Marx died.
"Being defeated is only a temporary condition; giving up is what makes it permanent."

-- Marilyn vos Savant, Author

JPE
Journal of Political Economy
A PEDestrian's Guide
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