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AGGREGATE DEMAND DETERMINANT: A ceteris paribus factor that affects aggregate demand, but which is assumed constant when the aggregate demand curve is constructed. Changes in any of the aggregate demand determinants cause the aggregate demand curve to shift. While a wide variety of specific ceteris paribus factors can cause the aggregate demand curve to shift, it's usually most convenient to group them into the four, broad expenditure categories -- consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. The reason is that changes in these expenditures are the direct cause of shifts in the aggregate demand curve. If any determinant affects aggregate demand it MUST affect one of these four expenditures.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Basic Flow
  • Overview
  • Four Sectors
  • Three Markets
  • The Physical Flow
  • The Payment Flow
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Financial Markets
  • The Paper Economy
  • Saving
  • Investment
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Government
  • What It Does
  • Taxes
  • Government Purchases
  • Government Borrowing
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Foreign
  • Foreign Trade
  • Exports and Imports
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Real World
  • Expenditures
  • Production And Income
  • Investment
  • Government Spending
  • Saving
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Circular Flow

    This lesson introduces the circular flow model of the macroeconomy. The circular flow is a simple model based on the buying and selling relation between the household and business sectors which occurs through the product and factor markets. As a bonus, we complicate the simply circular flow model, by including the government and foreign sectors, and the financial markets. This lesson introduces several important macroeconomic concept, but more importantly, provides a useful model for interpreting macroeconomic activity.

    • In the first unit, we get an introduction to the simplest circular flow model that includes the household and business sectors and the product and factor markets.
    • The second unit builds on the simple model by introducing the financial markets, which highlights the importance of household saving and business investment.
    • The circular flow is expanding further in the third unit, with the introduction of the government sector, which highlights how taxes are diverted away from the household sector.
    • The fourth unit adds one more sector to the circular flow model, the foreign sector, which illustrates the roles played exports and imports.
    • The fifth unit wraps up this lesson by showing how several key measures of production and income revealed in the analysis of gross domestic production related to the circular flow.

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    EXPLICIT COST

    An opportunity cost that involves a monetary payment or some other form of compensation. The monetary payment is generally made to compensate the person who initially foregoes the satisfaction. This payment, in effect, transfers the burden of the opportunity cost from the original person to the one making payment. Explicit cost is also commonly termed out-of-pocket or accounting cost, and occasionally explicit opportunity cost.

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel seeking to buy either a turbo-powered vacuum cleaner or a battery-powered, rechargeable vacuum cleaner. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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