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SECOND BANK OF THE UNITED STATES: The second attempt by the United States to created a central bank. The second bank was established in 1816 and when defunct in 1836, when it lost a political battle with President Andrew Jackson. The United States did not seek another central bank until the Federal Reserve System was established in 1913.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Instability
  • Overview
  • Business Cycles
  • Expansionary Good Times
  • Contractionary Bad Times
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: A Simple Cycle
  • Long-Run Trend
  • Contraction
  • Trough
  • Expansion
  • Peak
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Measurement
  • Indicators
  • Leading
  • Coincident
  • Lagging
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Causes
  • Complexity
  • Investment
  • The Process
  • Politics
  • The Process
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Policies
  • Options
  • Expansionary
  • Contractionary
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Business Cycles

    To purpose of this lesson is to examine the nature and causes of macroeconomic instability, which goes by the handy title business cycles. Business cycles are the recurring expansions and contractions of economic activity that generate the problems of unemployment and inflation. This lesson explores how business cycles can be stabilized with the goal of lessening unemployment and inflation.

    • The notion of business cycles is introduced in the first unit of this lesson, with an eye on what they are and why they are important to study.
    • The four components of a standard, simple business cycle -- expansion, peak, contraction, and trough -- are then presented and discussed in the second unit.
    • The third unit is devoted to several key measures of business cycle activity, especially leading, lagging, and coincident indicators.
    • A couple of the most often discussed causes of business-cycle instability -- investment and politics -- are discussed in the fourth unit.
    • The fifth unit closes out this lesson with an introduction to the expansionary and contractionary economic policies used to stabilize business cycles.

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    AGGREGATE SUPPLY

    The total (or aggregate) real production of final goods and services available in the domestic economy at a range of price levels, during a given time period. Aggregate supply, usually abbreviated AS, is two different relations between price level and real production--long run and short run. With long-run aggregate supply, prices and wages are flexible and all markets are in equilibrium. With short-run aggregate supply some prices and wage are NOT flexible and some markets are NOT in equilibrium. This is one half of the AS-AD (aggregate market) analysis. The other half is aggregate demand.

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    APLS

    GREEN LOGIGUIN
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing about a thrift store trying to buy either a solid oak entertainment center or a remote controlled ceiling fan. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
    "Success is liking yourself, liking what you do, and liking how you do it."

    -- Maya Angelou, Poet and Author

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    Investment/Saving-Liquidity/Money
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