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ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES: In 1948, 21 nations of the hemisphere met in Bogota, Colombia, to adopt the Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS). Since then, the OAS has expanded to include the nations of the Caribbean, as well as Canada. Currently, all 35 independent countries of the Americas have ratified the OAS Charter and belong to the Organization. Cuba remains a member, but its government has been excluded from participation in the OAS since 1962. The OAS is the region's premier political forum for multilateral dialogue and action. Among OAS' major goals they work for strengthening freedom of speech and thought as a basic human right, promoting greater participation by civil society in decision-making at all levels of government, improving cooperation to address the problem of illegal drugs and supporting the process to create a Free Trade Area of the Americas.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Instability
  • Overview
  • Business Cycles
  • Expansionary Good Times
  • Contractionary Bad Times
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: A Simple Cycle
  • Long-Run Trend
  • Contraction
  • Trough
  • Expansion
  • Peak
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Measurement
  • Indicators
  • Leading
  • Coincident
  • Lagging
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Causes
  • Complexity
  • Investment
  • The Process
  • Politics
  • The Process
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Policies
  • Options
  • Expansionary
  • Contractionary
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Business Cycles

    To purpose of this lesson is to examine the nature and causes of macroeconomic instability, which goes by the handy title business cycles. Business cycles are the recurring expansions and contractions of economic activity that generate the problems of unemployment and inflation. This lesson explores how business cycles can be stabilized with the goal of lessening unemployment and inflation.

    • The notion of business cycles is introduced in the first unit of this lesson, with an eye on what they are and why they are important to study.
    • The four components of a standard, simple business cycle -- expansion, peak, contraction, and trough -- are then presented and discussed in the second unit.
    • The third unit is devoted to several key measures of business cycle activity, especially leading, lagging, and coincident indicators.
    • A couple of the most often discussed causes of business-cycle instability -- investment and politics -- are discussed in the fourth unit.
    • The fifth unit closes out this lesson with an introduction to the expansionary and contractionary economic policies used to stabilize business cycles.

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    AVERAGE FACTOR COST, PERFECT COMPETITION

    Total factor cost per unit of factor input employed by a perfectly competitive firm in the production of output, found by dividing total factor cost by the quantity of factor input. Average factor cost, abbreviated AFC, is generally equal to the factor price. However, using the longer term average factor cost makes it easier to see the connection to related terms, including total factor cost and marginal factor cost.

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    APLS

    BROWN PRAGMATOX
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store looking to buy either a New York Yankees baseball cap or several magazines on home repairs. Be on the lookout for gnomes hiding in cypress trees.
    Your Complete Scope

    This isn't me! What am I?

    Rosemary, long associated with remembrance, was worn as wreaths by students in ancient Greece during exams.
    "The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet."

    -- Aristotle, philosopher

    LRAS
    Long Run Aggregate Supply
    A PEDestrian's Guide
    Xtra Credit
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