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October 15, 2018 

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OWNER-OCCUPIED HOUSING: Houses that are, quite simply, occupied by the owners. A person, or family, owns a house and lives in it. The contrast is with rental property, in which owners rent their houses out to others. Owner-occupied housing is important for the estimation of gross domestic product because it involves current production but has no market transactions. As such, the value of housing services have to be estimated before inclusion in gross domestic product.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Instability
  • Overview
  • Business Cycles
  • Expansionary Good Times
  • Contractionary Bad Times
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: A Simple Cycle
  • Long-Run Trend
  • Contraction
  • Trough
  • Expansion
  • Peak
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Measurement
  • Indicators
  • Leading
  • Coincident
  • Lagging
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Causes
  • Complexity
  • Investment
  • The Process
  • Politics
  • The Process
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Policies
  • Options
  • Expansionary
  • Contractionary
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Business Cycles

    To purpose of this lesson is to examine the nature and causes of macroeconomic instability, which goes by the handy title business cycles. Business cycles are the recurring expansions and contractions of economic activity that generate the problems of unemployment and inflation. This lesson explores how business cycles can be stabilized with the goal of lessening unemployment and inflation.

    • The notion of business cycles is introduced in the first unit of this lesson, with an eye on what they are and why they are important to study.
    • The four components of a standard, simple business cycle -- expansion, peak, contraction, and trough -- are then presented and discussed in the second unit.
    • The third unit is devoted to several key measures of business cycle activity, especially leading, lagging, and coincident indicators.
    • A couple of the most often discussed causes of business-cycle instability -- investment and politics -- are discussed in the fourth unit.
    • The fifth unit closes out this lesson with an introduction to the expansionary and contractionary economic policies used to stabilize business cycles.

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    EXCHANGE

    The process of trading one valuable commodity (good, service, or resource) for another. An exchange can be voluntary, such as what transpires through a market, or involuntary, such as when taxes are imposed by government.

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    APLS

    RED AGGRESSERINE
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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale looking to buy either a large, stuffed giraffe or a birthday greeting card for your aunt. Be on the lookout for attractive cable television service repair people.
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    Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
    "Give the American people a good cause, and there's nothing they can't lick. "

    -- John Wayne, actor

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