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CARDINAL: A measurement based on a scale or quantitative numbers, such as 1, 5, or 357.2, that enables a comparison in magnitude. Comparability means, for example, that the difference between 5 and 2 is the same as the difference between 12 and 9. Measures such as height and weight use cardinal numbers. Most economic measures are based on cardinal numbers, including gross domestic product, unemployment rate, the price of chocolate, and the quantity of wheat produced. The benefit of cardinal measurement is the ability to directly compare one measure with another. If, for example, the price of chocolate is $1 a pound and the price of wheat is $4 a pound, then wheat is four times more expensive than chocolate. Ordinal measures, which involve relative ranking, is an alternative type of measure.

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Lesson 11: Circular Flow | Unit 3: Government Page: 14 of 22

Topic: Government Borrowing <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

When government does not collect enough taxes to pay for purchases, it borrows through the financial markets.
  • The federal deficit is borrowing by the federal government to make up the difference between taxes and spending.
  • State and local governments also borrow through financial markets.
  • The green flow leaving the financial markets and entering the government sector is government borrowing.
  • Government sector purchases can be less than taxes, which means government saves to the financial markets.
  • Many state and local governments actually save. State and local saving reduces total government sector borrowing in times of high federal deficits.

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COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE

The ability to produce one good at a relatively lower opportunity cost than other goods, especially compared to production in another country. Every person or country has a comparative advantage in production of at least one good or service, even with relatively limited production technology. A related, but contrasting concept is absolute advantage. Both terms are perhaps most important to the study of international trade, but also provide insight into other exchanges.

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APLS

PURPLE SMARPHIN
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through the yellow pages seeking to buy either a combination CD player, clock radio, and telephone (with answering machine) or a revolving spice rack. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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This isn't me! What am I?

Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
"Now is the only time there is. Make your now wow, your minutes miracles, and your days pay. Your life will have been magnificently lived and invested, and when you die you will have made a difference."

-- Mark Victor Hansen

DRR
Discounted Rate of Return
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