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OPEC: The common abbreviation for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which is an international organization of more than a dozen nations located primarily in the Middle East, Africa, and Central America that controls a sizeable portion of the world's petroleum reserves. This control over oil reserves gives OPEC significant market control, which it has been inclined to exert from time to time. The most noted time was the 1970s. OPEC raised oil prices from a scant $2 to $3 a barrel in the early 1970s to over $30 a barrel by the end of the decade. As an group of independent oil-producing nations seeking to monopolize the market, OPEC represents a textbook example of an cartel.

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Lesson 11: Circular Flow | Unit 2: Financial Markets Page: 10 of 22

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  • The main function of financial markets, which is to divert national income from household consumption to business investment.
  • The difference between the real or physical side of the economy (the production of goods that satisfy wants and needs) and the paper or financial side (legal claims on or ownership of physical resources, goods, and production).
  • How income is diverted from legal-claim buyer to legal-claim seller through the financial markets.
  • Why saving can be thought as a nonconsumption use of income, as making a loan, or as supplying income to the financial markets in exchange for a legal claim.
  • Two basic reasons to save: (1) in return for an interest payment or (2) to accumulate income that can be spent later.
  • Investment, which is business sector expenditures on gross domestic product for capital goods.
  • How the business sector borrows income through financial markets and uses this income flow to finance capital investment.
  • Why adding saving, investment, and financial markets does not change the total volume of the circular flow.
  • That imbalances between saving and investment trigger economic stability, business cycles, unemployment, and inflation.

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ECONOMIC GROWTH, PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES

Economic growth is the process of increasing the economy's ability to produce goods and services. It is achieved by increasing the quantity or quality of resources. This process can be illustrated as an outward shift of the production possibilities curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway looking to buy either a flower arrangement with anything but tulips for your grandfather or a birthday greeting card for your mother that doesn't look like a greeting card. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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Three-forths of the gold mined each year is used to manufacture jewelry.
"When I look back on all these worries, I remember the story of the old man who said on his deathbed that he had had a lot of trouble in his life, most of which had never happened. "

-- Winston Churchill, British statesman

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