March 19, 2018 

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WELFARE: An assortment of programs that provide assistance to the poor. The cornerstone of our welfare system is Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), which was created by the Social Security Act (1935). It provides cash benefits to assist needy families with children under the age of 18. Funding comes partly from the federal government and partly from states. Because states also administer their own programs, benefits and qualification criteria differ from state to state. A second part of the welfare system, one that's run entirely by the federal government, is Supplemental Security Income (SSI). This program provides cash benefits to elderly, blind, and disabled in addition to any benefits received through the Social Security system. Our welfare system includes a whole bunch of additional benefits, including Medicaid, food stamps, low-cost housing, school lunches, job training, day care, and earned-income tax credits.

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Lesson 11: Circular Flow | Unit 2: Financial Markets Page: 7 of 22

Topic: The Paper Economy <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Financial markets divert national income from household consumption to business investment.
  • Real side: Goods and resources, physical production used to satisfy wants and needs.
  • Paper side: Legal claims on these physical goods and resources. Examples: Corporate stocks, government bonds, money, bank statements, mortgage contracts.
  • Trading legal claims through financial markets diverts income from consumption to investment.
  • A legal claim buyer gets the legal claim, but gives up income. The legal claim seller gives up the claim and takes possession of the income.
  • Income is diverted from a legal claim buyer (lender, saver) to a legal claim seller (borrower) through the financial markets.Two additional flows: Saving and Investment.

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The physical capital (building and equipment) at a particular location used for the production of goods and services. A factory, or plant, is usually a relatively large production operation (compared with something smaller, like a shop). While factory and firm are occasionally used synonymously they are not really the same. A given firm might own more than factory and a given factory might be owned by more than one firm.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through the yellow pages looking to buy either pink cotton balls or a genuine down-filled comforter. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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A half gallon milk jug holds about $50 in pennies.
"Whatever course you decide upon, there is always someone to tell you that you are wrong. There are always difficulties arising which tempt you to believe that your critics are right. To map out a course of action and follow it to an end requires...courage."

-- Ralph Waldo Emerson

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