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DETERMINANTS: Ceteris paribus factors that are held constant when a curve is constructed. Changes in these factors then cause the curve to shift to a new location. The most common determinants are demand determinants for the demand curve (income, preferences, other prices, buyers' expectations, and number of buyers) and supply determinants for the supply curve (resource prices, technology, other prices, buyers' expectations, and number of buyers). Other common curves and their determinants include: production possibilities curve (technology, education and the quantities of labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship); aggregate demand curve (the four aggregate expenditures of consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports); and short-run average cost curve (technology, wages, and other production cost).

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Lesson 16: Aggregate Shocks | Unit 3: Basic Shifts Page: 11 of 21

Topic: AD Decrease: Short Run <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The short-run equilibrium is given by the intersection of the negatively sloped AD curve and the positively-sloped SRAS.
  • A decrease in AD and results in a new short-run equilibrium.
  • At the new equilibrium, both real production and the price level decrease.
  • Real production can decrease below full employment -- in the short run.
  • This shift gives us an intermediate point from one long-run equilibrium to another.

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INFLEXIBLE PRICES

The proposition that some prices adjust slowly in response to market shortages or surpluses. This condition is most important for macroeconomic activity in the short run and short-run aggregate market analysis. In particular, inflexible prices (also termed rigid prices or sticky prices) are a key reason underlying the positive slope of the short-run aggregate supply curve. Prices tend to be the most inflexible in resource markets, especially labor markets, and the least inflexible in financial markets, with product markets falling between the two.

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