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PRICE FIXING: An agreement by two or more firms in an industry to charge the same price and avoid competing with each other. This is one of the methods businesses use to practice collusion or form a cartel. It is, by the way, against antitrust law.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 4: Science and Practice Page: 13 of 20

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An example of how the scientific method works:
  • You suspect that a relationship exists between course grades and where students are seated in the class.
  • Specifically, you think that students who sit closer to the front of the class receive higher the grades.
Three forms of our hypothesis:
General:
  • Students seated closer to the front receive higher grades.
A More Specific Form:
  • If students sit on the front row, then they receive As-- if they sit on the second row, then they receive Bs-- etc.
Using An Equation:
  • G = a + bD, where b is negative, meaning students seated closer (small D) receive higher grades (large G).
  • Key is that we can compare hypothesis with data.

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PERFECT COMPETITION

An ideal market structure characterized by a large number of small firms, identical products sold by all firms, freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and perfect knowledge of prices and technology. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that is not observed in the real world. While unrealistic, it does provide an excellent benchmark that can be used to analyze real world market structures. In particular, perfect competition efficiently allocates resources.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store seeking to buy either a birthday gift for your grandmother or a T-shirt commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a champion of the scientific method, died when he caught a severe cold while attempting to preserve a chicken by filling it with snow.
"Follow effective action with quiet reflection. From the quiet reflection will come even more effective action. "

-- Peter F. Drucker, author

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