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ANNUITY: The receipt of payments at regular intervals from a established fund. Annuities are commonly used for insurance and retirement programs. It works in this way: A fund, which can be established either through a one-time sum of money or a series of payments, is exhausted over time with fixed, periodic payments. The amount of each payment depends on the interest accrued on the outstanding balance in the fund, and the length of time scheduled to exhaust the fund. For example, if your pension plan is based on an annuity that begins payments at the age of 65, then the size of the payments depends on whether you expect to live 5, 10, 15, or more years and set up payments accordingly. It's very similar to amortization, but in the reverse direction.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 2: Theory Page: 6 of 20

Topic: Abstraction <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Economic theories are abstractions of the real world.

Three ways to abstract:
  • Words. The earliest human method of abstraction was to represent objects with words. Words also represent ideas. But words can have different meanings.
  • Graphs. Pictures, especially graphical pictures. Many economic theories are abstractly represented with graphs. A picture or graph can be less confusing that words.
  • Equations. Graphs are two-dimensional pictures of mathematical equations. Economic theories are often abstractly represented by equations. Equations can represent relationships between three or more things, like that for X, Y and Z:
Y = 3 + 2X - 4Z

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FOUR-SECTOR AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE

A graphical depiction of the relation between aggregate expenditures by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) and the level of aggregate income or production. The four-sector aggregate expenditures line combines consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports. The slope of this aggregate expenditures line is based on the marginal propensity to consume, adjusted for marginal propensities of the other expenditures that are assumed to be induced when constructing the line. This is one of three aggregate expenditures lines based on the number of sectors included. The others are the two-sector aggregate expenditures line and the three-sector aggregate expenditures line.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time driving to a factory outlet wanting to buy either a black duffle bag with velcro closures or any book written by Isaac Asimov. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from long-lost relatives.
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The New York Stock Exchange was established by a group of investors in New York City in 1817 under a buttonwood tree at the end of a little road named Wall Street.
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