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INDUCED EXPENDITURE: An aggregate expenditure (consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports) that depends on national income or gross domestic product. These four aggregate expenditures are conveniently separated into two types, induced, which is our current topic of expenditures unrelated to national income or GDP, and autonomous expenditures, expenditures which are unrelated to national income or GDP. Induced expenditures are graphically depicted as the slope of the aggregate expenditures line, and depend in large part on the marginal propensity to consume. The induced relation between income and expenditures form the foundation of the multiplier effect triggered by changes in autonomous expenditures.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Method
  • Overview
  • Components
  • A Process
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Theory
  • Concept
  • Abstraction
  • Economic Theories
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Verification
  • Overview & Data
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation:Don't Agree
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Science and Practice
  • Set Up
  • Theory
  • Verification
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Cause and Effect
  • Purpose
  • An Example
  • Analysis
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Economic Science

    In this lesson you'll see why and how the scientific method is a process of discovery. You'll see that it's a process of building theories to explain the workings of the world (the economy) by proposing then testing hypotheses. The five units making up this lesson will guide you through the basics of the scientific method and how it's used in the study of economics.

    • The first unit introduces the scientific method, especially its' four key components -- theories, principles, hypothesis, and data.
    • The second unit then takes a closer look at theories, including the central role played by abstraction.
    • In the third unit, we will focus on the process of verification -- how and why hypothesized relationships about the workings of the economy are compared with actual data.
    • We then turn out attention to a simple example of how the scientific method is used to test a hypothesized relation between course grades and where students are seated in a classroom.
    • The fifth and final unit in this lesson examines the role that cause and effect plays in the scientific method and economic science.

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    HORIZONTAL EQUITY

    A tax equity principle stating that people with the same ability to pay taxes should pay the same amount of taxes. This is one of two equity principles related to the ability-to-pay principle. The other is vertical equity, which states that people with a different ability to pay taxes should pay a different amount of taxes.

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    APLS

    PURPLE SMARPHIN
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale seeking to buy either handcrafted decorations to hang on your walls or throw pillows for your bed. Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    In the Middle Ages, pepper was used for bartering, and it was often more valuable and stable in value than gold.
    "Difficulties mastered are opportunities won. "

    -- Winston Churchill, Statesman

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    Net Book Value
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