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TAX AVOIDANCE: A legal reduction in taxes. The complexity of our system of taxes, especially income taxes, makes it extremely worthwhile to identify the mix of spending, working, and assorted activities that reduce taxes. This has also created a major industry of accountants, lawyers, educators, public speakers, and others who spend their efforts uncovering legal tax loopholes. In terms of the big efficiency picture, this is a waste of resources. Our lives would, in general, be better off if this tax avoidance industry devoted it's efforts to increasing gross domestic product rather than diverting it from one pocket to another. This, though, is not a fault of theirs, but of the tax system itself.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Exchange
  • What It Is
  • Equilibrium
  • Competition
  • Number
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: The Numbers
  • Schedule
  • Market Agreement
  • Equilibrium
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: A Graph
  • The Curves
  • The Equilibrium
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Adjustment
  • Self-Correction
  • Shortage
  • Surplus
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Efficiency
  • What It Is
  • Efficient Markets
  • Too Little Production
  • Too Much Production
  • Inefficiency
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Market

    In this lesson, we'll see how buyers (discussed in the demand lesson) come together with sellers (discussed in the supply lesson) to exchange commodities using a market. More precisely, this lesson develops an abstract market model, or market analysis, that we can use to explain and understand a wide range of real world exchanges.

    • This lesson begins with an overview of the basic exchange process underlying markets, including the notion of equilibrium, the roles played by price and quantity, and the importance of competition.
    • In the second unit we work through a simple market analysis using demand and supply schedules, highlight both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions.
    • The third unit then carefully examines the notion of market equilibrium using demand and supply curves, which generates the widely used graphical model of the market.
    • Moving onto the fourth unit, we use the graphical market model to investigate the automatic market responses to shortages and surpluses.
    • The lesson concludes in the fifth unit by considering the relation between market exchanges and efficiency.

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    BALANCE OF TRADE DEFICIT

    The negative difference of the value of goods and services exported out of a country less the value of goods and services imported into the country. A balance of trade deficit is the official term for negative net exports that occurs when imports exceed exports. A balance of trade deficit is also termed an "unfavorable" balance of trade because it results in a net outflow of monetary payments from the domestic economic to the foreign sector, which tends to be bad for a country. The alternative is a balance of trade surplus in which exports exceed imports.

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    APLS

    WHITE GULLIBON
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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale seeking to buy either a genuine down-filled pillow or one of those "hang in there" kitty cat posters. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    Three-forths of the gold mined each year is used to manufacture jewelry.
    "Difficulties mastered are opportunities won. "

    -- Winston Churchill, Statesman

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