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DISEQUILIBRIUM, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET: The state of the short-run aggregate market in which real aggregate expenditures are NOT equal to real production, which result in imbalances that induce changes in the price level, aggregate expenditures, and/or real production. In other words, the opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and short-run aggregate supply (the sellers) are out of balance. Either the four macroeconomic sector (households, business, government, and foreign) buyers are unable to purchase all of the real production that they seek at the existing price level or business-sector producers are unable to sell all of the real production that they have available at the existing price level.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 3: The Economy Page: 9 of 18

Topic: A Mixed Economy: The Mix <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

A pure market economy and a pure command economy are two theoretical extremes in the allocation of resources.
  • Real world economies form a continuum bounded by these two extremes. They are mixed economies:
  • A mixed economy is one that relies on both markets and government to allocate resources.
  • Market-oriented economies, also called capitalism, are mixed economies that lean heavily to the market end.
  • Socialism and communism are mixed economies that lean more (a lot more) toward government control.

The mixed U.S. economy leans heavily to the market end of the market-government continuum.

Three indicators of government involvement:
  • Taxes: Government controls about 1/3 of the revenue generated in the economy each year.
  • Spending: Government buys 20% of the goods produced each year.
  • Regulations: Government influences many allocation decisions through laws, rules, and other restrictions.

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DATA

Observations or measurements that quantify or otherwise identify some aspect of the real world. Data are used to track economic performance, quantify economic characteristics, and test economic hypotheses. Data collection is often the most challenging part of undertaking an empirical analysis.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale trying to buy either looseleaf notebook paper or a three-hole paper punch. Be on the lookout for pencil sharpeners with an attitude.
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