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REQUIRED RESERVES: The amount of vault cash and/or Federal Reserve deposits that a bank must legally keep to back outstanding deposits. These are the assets that bank regulators specify a bank must have to ensure the stability of deposits and conduct daily transactions.

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Lesson 1: Economic Basics | Unit 3: The Economy Page: 8 of 18

Topic: A Mixed Economy: Markets and Government <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Markets do an effective (and efficient) job of answering the three questions of allocation--most of the time.
  • Markets are the VOLUNTARY exchange of goods and services.
  • A pure market economy is an economy that uses nothing but markets to allocate resources.
  • A pure market economy is a useful theoretical benchmark.
Market responses to the allocation questions:
  • What? Resources are used to produce goods with the highest prices.
  • How? Goods are produced using the combination of resource with the lowest prices.
  • For Whom? People with more income buy more goods.

Government also helps answer the three questions of allocation.
  • Government allocation is INVOLUNTARY. It sets the laws and rules.
  • A pure command economy is an economy that uses nothing but government to allocate resources.
  • A pure command economy is another useful theoretical benchmark.
Government responses to the allocation questions:
  • What? When government spends taxes, it dictates what goods will be produced.
  • How? Government has laws and rules that specify how resources will be used to produce goods.
  • For Whom? Government collects taxes from some people and distributes them among other people.

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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES DETERMINANTS

Ceteris paribus factors, other than aggregate income or production, that are held constant when the aggregate expenditures line is constructed and which cause the aggregate expenditures line to shift when they change. Some of the more important aggregate expenditures determinants are interest rates, expectations, fiscal policy, wealth, and exchange rates.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for a downtown retail store trying to buy either a set of serrated steak knives, with durable plastic handles or a pair of blue silicon oven mitts. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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The average length of a "business lunch" is about 36 minutes.
"There comes a time when the mind takes a higher plane of knowledge but can never prove how it got there. "

-- Albert Einstein, physicist

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