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MARGIN REQUIREMENT: The fraction of the purchase price of financial investments, like stocks and bonds, that the buyer must pay for in cash. The remaining part of the purchase price can thus be financed with credit.

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Lesson 17: Money | Unit 4: Money's History Page: 20 of 25

Topic: Fiat Money <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Fiat money has little or no value in use compared to value in exchange. The value in exchange of fiat money is under control of an authority, usually government.

The transition:

  • First: Paper currency was backed by metal stored in a secure location. The paper could be traded for equivalent amounts of silver or gold.
  • Second: Because no one traded paper currency for metal, metal wasn't needed to back the paper. They just need a paper currency-to-metal exchange rate.
  • Third: Authorities stopped fixing the currency-to-metal exchange price. Paper currency was valuable based on the ability to purchase goods.

A two-edged sword:

  • Authority acquires the ability to control money and also the responsibility.

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INDIRECT BUSINESS TAXES

The official entry in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis for sales taxes. Indirect business taxes are one key difference between national income (the resource cost of production) and gross (and net) domestic product (the market value of production). Indirect business taxes (IBT) is generally less than 10 percent of gross domestic product (7 to 8 percent is common).

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ORANGE REBELOON
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials wanting to buy either rechargeable batteries or a rechargeable battery for your computer. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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One of the largest markets for gold in the United States is the manufacturing of class rings.
"The greatest barrier to success is the fear of failure."

-- Sven Goran Eriksson, writer

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