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DISTRIBUTION STANDARDS: Three alternative criteria for distributing income to members of society--contributive standard, equality standard, needs standard. A basic notion in economics is that income is generated through production (circular flow). The amount of income generated each year depends on the value of goods and services produced with the economy's limited resources. But once this income is generated it must be distributed to members of society. The contributive, equality, and needs standards are the three primary criteria for distributing income.

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Lesson 2: Economic Science | Unit 2: Theory Page: 8 of 20

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  • That the best scientific theory is one that offers a universal explanation of the real world.
  • How scientific theories are comprised of verified principles and unverified axioms or beliefs that constitute a world view.
  • That the world view of many theories is also intertwined with a political philosophy.
  • The inherent need for abstraction in the development of scientific theories.
  • Three common forms of abstraction--words, graphs, and equations.
  • An introduction of three economic theories--markets, aggregate markets, and Keynesian economics.

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UTILITARIANISM

A philosophical view that the value or worth of an action depends on the amount of pleasure it generates or the amount of pain it prevents, or in economic terms, the amount of utility generated. Utilitarianism, although dating back to the early Greek philosophers, is largely attributable to the work of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. This philosophy played a major role in the development of modern consumer demand theory and utility analysis.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for a downtown retail store hoping to buy either a tall storage cabinet with five shelves and a secure lock or a birthday greeting card for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for poorly written technical manuals.
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A lump of pure gold the size of a matchbox can be flattened into a sheet the size of a tennis court!
"Act well at the moment, and you have performed a good action for all eternity."

-- Johann Kaspar Lavater

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