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September 18, 2018 

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PERFECT COMPETITION, PROFIT ANALYSIS: A perfectly competitive firm produces the profit-maximizing quantity of output that generates the highest level of profit. This profit approach is one of three methods that used to determine the profit-maximizing quantity of output. The other two methods involve a comparison of total revenue and total cost or a comparison of marginal revenue and marginal cost.

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L:

A broad monetary measure that combines M3 plus several liquid assets, including commercial paper, U.S. Treasury bills, savings bonds, and bankers' acceptances. L used to be tracked and reported by the Federal Reserve System along with M1, M2, and M3. However, L is no longer reported.
L once represented the broadest measure of liquid assets reported by the Federal Reserve System. It contained everything in M3 (currency, checkable deposits, assorted savings deposits, and institutional near monies), plus four nonmoney liquid assets--commercial paper, U.S. Treasury bills, savings bonds, and bankers' acceptances.

These liquid assets provide a pool of wealth that can be converted to money (currency or checkable deposits) with relative ease and minimal loss of value. The assets are not quite as liquid as the savings near monies found in M2 nor the investment near monies found in M3. But they are substantially more liquid than other financial or physical assets (corporate stocks, factories, housing, or furniture).

While the numbers are not readily available, when officially tracked by the Federal Reserve, about 80 to 85 percent of L was comprised of M3, with the remaining 15 to 20 percent consisting of the extra liquid assets.

Liquid Assets

L was calculated, when it as officially tracked, as the sum of M3 and liquid assets. These liquid assets are financial assets that can be converted to currency or checkable deposits only minimal effort and minimal loss of value.

The four primary liquid assets added to M3 to calculate L are: (1) commercial paper, (2) U.S. Treasury bills, (3) savings bonds, and (4) bankers' acceptances.

  • Commercial Paper: These are unsecured, short-term promissory notes (usually less than nine months) issued by businesses to obtained working capital. Commercial paper is negotiable and, once issued, is commonly traded among investors through established markets until the maturity date. As such, commercial paper is relatively liquid. It can be easily sold to other investors, meaning it can be converted to currency or checkable deposits with little loss of value.

  • U.S. Treasury Bills: These are short-term promissory notes (usually less than a year) issued by the federal government to finance the federal deficit. Like commercial paper, Treasury bills are negotiable once issued and can be easily converted to currency or checkable deposits through established markets.

  • Savings Bonds: These are standard savings bonds issued by the federal government and typically purchased by members of the household sector. They are a notch down the liquidity ladder from other types of household savings, such as savings accounts and money market mutual funds. As such, they can be "cashed in" and converted to spendable M1, but not as easily as other savings.

  • Bankers' Acceptances: These are short-term promissory notes issued by nonfinancial firms (such as a manufacturing firm) that are backed or underwritten by a commercial bank. Like commercial paper, bankers' acceptances are used to obtain short-term working capital, often for firms engaged in importing and exporting. Also like commercial paper and Treasury bills, once issued, these assets are exchange through markets, making them relatively liquid.

Three Monetary Aggregates

While L is no longer reported by the Federal Reserve System, three other monetary aggregates continue to be tracked. They are conveniently labeled M1, M2, and M3.
  • Narrow-Range Money: M1: This is the combination of currency (and coins) issued by government and held by the nonbank public and checkable deposits issued by banking institutions. M1 contains the two items that function as THE medium of exchange for the U.S. economy.

  • Medium-Range Money: M2: This is M1 plus the addition of highly liquid, savings-type near monies. The near monies added to M1 to obtain M2 include savings deposits, certificates of deposit, money market deposits, and money market mutual funds. Some folks consider M2 a better overall measure of the economy's money supply than M1.

  • Board-Range Money: M3: This is M2 plus the addition of several slightly less liquid, investment-type near monies. The near monies added to M2 to obtain M3 include larger denomination certificates of deposit, larger money market deposits, repurchase agreements, and Eurodollars.

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Recommended Citation:

L, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: September 18, 2018].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | monetary aggregates | M1 | M2 | M3 | savings deposits | money market deposits | money market mutual funds | certificate of deposit | currency | checkable deposits | near monies | plastic money | repurchase agreements | Eurodollars |


Or For A Little Background...

     | money | money functions | money characteristics | fiat money | commodity money | medium of exchange | liquidity | savings |


And For Further Study...

     | money creation | fractional-reserve banking | banking | Federal Reserve System | monetary economics | monetary base | monetary policy | debit card | monetary economics |


Related Websites (Will Open in New Window)...

     | Federal Reserve System | Federal Reserve Education | U.S. Department of the Treasury | The Currency Gallery |


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