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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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Lesson 3: Scarcity | Unit 4: College Cost Page: 12 of 17

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An example of the opportunity cost of attending college.
  • Tuition, fees, textbooks, sliderule, etc. ($932.71 per semester) is an explicit opportunity cost.
  • The opportunity cost is all other things that you could have bought with this money-fuzzy dice, hot fudge sundaes, a used Ford Pinto, music CDs.
  • The tuition cost of your college degree is the added up over all semesters ($7,461,68).
However, the TOTAL COST actually goes well beyond this explicit $7,461,68 payment, since there are other costs that don't involve a money payment:
  • By attending school you have foregone alternative activities like working.
  • Unearned income, $15,000 per year, $60,000 for four years, is an extremely important implicit opportunity cost of a college education.
  • Implicit opportunity costs need not have a dollar value attached.
  • The foregone satisfaction from activities like watching television or sleeping, are also implicit opportunity costs.

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PROFIT MAXIMIZATION

The process of obtaining the highest possible level of profit through the production and sale of goods and services. The profit-maximization assumption is the guiding principle underlying production by a firm. In particular, it is assumed that firms undertake actions and make the decisions that increase profit. The profit-maximization assumption is the production counterpart to the utility-maximization assumption for consumer behavior.

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ORANGE REBELOON
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club looking to buy either a birthday greeting card for your grandmother or a coffee cup commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for infected paper cuts.
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During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
"The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining."

-- John F. Kennedy, 35th U. S. president

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