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January 18, 2018 

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ZERO-SUM GAME: A situation in which a fixed amount is divided up among the winners and losers. In a zero-sum game the wins equal the losses. Many stock market, or financial market, exchanges are zero-sum. One person buys low and sells high, while another buys high and sells low. The wealth in such transactions are merely transferred from one person to another. "Productive" market transactions, in contrast, are not zero-sum. The act of producing goods and services from resources that are consumed to satisfy wants and needs results in a net gain to society.

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Lesson 3: Scarcity | Unit 4: College Cost Page: 13 of 17

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With foregone income the costs of attending college is closer to $70,000 than the $7,000 tuition payment.
  • Overall total depends on subjective values placed on other activities, like sleeping and entertainment. (Note the second rule of subjectivity.)
  • What about other costs of attending college? It depends on the whether or not you give up something to pursue the activity of attending college.
  • Room and board? Because you would have eaten and slept even if had you not attended college, room and board is not an expense of going to college, it's just an expense of life.
  • Opportunity cost results from giving up something.

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TERMS OF TRADE

The rate at which goods are traded, either between individuals or between nations. It is the quantity of one good exchanged per unit of another good. The terms of trade is essentially the price. But the price is stated in terms of the quantity of another good. Like any market price, the terms of trade is based on what the buyers are willing to pay and what the sellers are willing to accept. The terms of trade between any two countries is based on the relative opportunity cost in each country.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a dollar discount store looking to buy either a black duffle bag with velcro closures or any book written by Isaac Asimov. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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Three-forths of the gold mined each year is used to manufacture jewelry.
"Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn't do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover."

-- Mark Twain

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