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CENTRAL PLANNING: A system of extensive central government control of an economy, including organizing production and making allocation decisions. This was the popular method of allocating resources and answering the three basic questions of allocation under the communism/socialism economic systems of the Soviet Union, China, and others during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Applying the communist/socialist philosophy that private property and market allocation were "bad," central planning relied on extremely detailed plans made by government. These plans would set specific production quotas for individual products, parts, components, and inputs fabricated by all of the factories and farms across the economy. This was a daunting, complex task that required detailed production information for hundreds of thousands of different commodities.

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Lesson 4: Production Possibilities | Unit 4: Analysis Page: 15 of 24

Topic: Unemployment <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

We can use production possibilities to illustrate unemployment, too.
  • Unemployment is the condition that exists when some available resources are NOT engaged in the production of goods and services.
  • Unemployment is interpreted as any bundle that places the economy INSIDE the production possibilities curve.
  • With unemployment we don't get as much production as with full employment.
  • Unemployment is as any bundle, such as L, inside the curve.
  • M is not attainable.
  • Unemployment applies to all types of resources.

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AD VALOREM TAX

A tax specified as a percentage of the price or value of a good, service, asset, or other activity. Ad valorem taxes tend to be broad based, imposed on activities such as income and retail sales. In fact, the two most important ad valorem taxes are income taxes and sales taxes. People pay a percentage of their incomes in income taxes or a percentage or the value of their purchases in sales taxes, regardless of the amount of time spent working or the quantities of goods purchases. An alternative is a per unit tax, with is a tax specified as a percentage of the physical quantity of a good.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale looking to buy either one of those memory foam pillows or a remote controlled train set. Be on the lookout for crowded shopping malls.
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Potato chips were invented in 1853 by a irritated chef repeatedly seeking to appease the hard to please Cornelius Vanderbilt who demanded french fried potatoes that were thinner and crisper than normal.
"How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world. "

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