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ACCOUNTING COST: The actual outlays or expenses incurred in production that shows up a firm's accounting statements or records. Accounting costs, while very important to accountants, company CEOs, shareholders, and the Internal Revenue Service, is only minimally important to economists. The reason is that economists are primarily interested in economic cost (also called opportunity cost). That fact is that accounting costs and economic costs aren't always the same. An opportunity or economic cost is the value of foregone production. Some economic costs, actually a lot of economic opportunity costs, never show up as accounting costs. Moreover, some accounting costs, while legal, bonified payments by a firm, are not associated with any sort of opportunity cost.

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Lesson 5: Market Demand | Unit 3: Demand Curve Page: 12 of 20

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  • How a demand schedule, which is a table of price/quantity numbers, can be used to illustrate demand and the law of demand.
  • How a demand curve can be derived from a demand schedule by plotting the price/quantity pairs, and how the negative slope of this demand curve also reflects the law of demand.
  • Demand space as the area beneath a demand curve and that the demand price on the demand curve is the upper limit of buyers' demand space.


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INDUCED CONSUMPTION

Household consumption expenditures that depend on income or production (especially disposable income, national income, or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income induce changes in consumption. Induced consumption captures the fundamental psychological law put forth by John Maynard Keynes. It is measured by the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) and is reflected by the positive slope of consumption line. The alternative to induced consumption is autonomous consumption, which does not depend on income.

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