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September 23, 2021 

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OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY: The mobility, or movement, of factors of production from one type of productive activity to another type of productive activity. In particular, occupational mobility is the ease with which resources can change occupations. For example, a worker leaves a job as an accountant to takes a job as a computer programmer. Some factors are highly mobile and thus can easily moved jobs. Other factors are highly immobile and not easily able to switch production activities.

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

     See also | taxes | supply-side economics | Kemp-Roth Act | income tax | conservative |


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THREE-SECTOR INJECTIONS-LEAKAGES MODEL

A variation of the Keynesian injections-leakages model that includes the three domestic sectors--the household sector, the business sector, and the government sector. This model provides an alternative to the three-sector aggregate expenditures (Keynesian cross) analysis of government stabilization policies, especially how fiscal policy changes in government purchases and taxes can be used to close recessionary gaps and inflationary gaps. Equilibrium is identified as the intersection between the S + T line and the I + G line. Two related variations are the two-sector injections-leakages model and the four-sector injections-leakages model.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel looking to buy either shoe laces for your snow boots or a rim for your spare tire. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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It's estimated that the U.S. economy has about $20 million of counterfeit currency in circulation, less than 0.001 perecent of the total legal currency.
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