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May 11, 2021 

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MARKET FAILURES: Conditions in which a market does not efficiently allocate resources to achieve the greatest possible consumer satisfaction. The four main market failures are--(1) public good, (2) market control, (3) externality, and (4) imperfect information. In each case, a market acting without any government imposed direction, does not direct an efficient amount of our resources into the production, distribution, or consumption of the good.

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SLOPE, CONSUMPTION LINE

The positive slope of the consumption line is also termed the marginal propensity to consume (MPC). This slope is greater than zero but less than one, reflecting induced consumption and the Keynesian psychological law of consumer behavior that consumption increases by less than the increase in income. The slope of the consumption line provides the foundation for the slope of the aggregate expenditures line and thus also affects the magnitude of the multiplier process.

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Fact 2: Our Subjective Values

Upon leaving Scarcity Stan's Bakery Shoppe and Confectionery Palace our pedestrian's excursion drops into Mega-Mart Discount Warehouse Super Center. A quick tour of this mecca of mass production -- lasting no more than three days -- is likely to reveal within the 20 gadzillion square feet of floor space a number of sales racks, shelves, and tables filled with merchandise marked down for clearance. A prominently displayed sign on one sales rack boldly declares that the regular $24.99 price has been drastically reduced, for this week only, to $3.98. What a bargain! What a sale! We have the chance -- "for a limited time only" -- to get stuff valued at $24.99 for only $3.98! With a bargain like this, how can we lose?

It's easy to lose, if you don't understand the concept of value. Most of us have several "bargains" stored away in the attic, closet, or garage that never have seen, and probably never will see, anything resembling use. What seemed like a great "bargain" at the store, does nothing but occupy space at home. (By the way, does anyone have use for a distributor cap for a 1949 Ford?)
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BEIGE MUNDORTLE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale wanting to buy either a turbo-powered vacuum cleaner or a battery-powered, rechargeable vacuum cleaner. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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Only 1% of the U.S. population paid income taxes when the income tax was established in 1914.
"Everyone is bound to bear patiently the results of his own example. "

-- Phaedrus, Philosopher

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