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March 5, 2024 

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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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FACTOR MARKET: A market used to exchange the services of a factor of production: labor, capital, land , and entrepreneurship. Factor markets, also termed resource markets, exchange the services of factors, NOT the factors themselves. For example, the labor services of workers are exchanged through factor markets NOT the actual workers. Buying and selling the actual workers is not only slavery (which is illegal) it's also the type of exchange that would take place through product markets, not factor markets. More realistically, capital and land are two resources than can be and are legally exchanged through product markets. The services of these resources, however, are exchanged through factor markets. The value of the services exchanged through factor markets each year is measured as national income.

     See also | factor payments | factors of production | labor | capital | land | entrepreneurship | market | resource markets | services | product markets | financial markets | national income | personal income | disposable income | circular flow | business sector | household sector | factor demand | factor supply | monopsony |


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MARKET FAILURES

Imperfections in the exchange process between buyers and sellers that prevent markets from efficiently allocating scarce resources. Market failures come in four varieties -- public goods, market control, externalities, and imperfect information. Market efficiency is achieved if the value of goods produced is equal to the value of foregone production. Markets fail when this efficiency condition is not achieved. Such failures can only be corrected by government intervention.

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