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June 16, 2024 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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PROPRIETORSHIP: One of the three basic forms of business organization (the other two corporation and partnership). It's a business that's owned and operated by one person. The owner and the business are legally considered one and the same. As such, the owner gets any and all profit and has what is termed unlimited liability the owner is held personally responsible for any and all of the business's debts. The owner can lose personal property over and above the amount invested in the business itself. The majority of businesses in our economy are proprietorships, but because their size is limited by the resources of a single person, they tend to be relatively small.

     See also | firm | business | corporation | partnership | limited liability | unlimited liability | small business |


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PROPRIETORSHIP, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: June 16, 2024].


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AGGREGATE DEMAND SHIFTS

Changes in the aggregate demand determinants cause the aggregate demand curve to shift. The mechanism is comparable to that for market demand determinants and market demand. There are two alternatives--an increase in aggregate demand and a decrease in aggregate demand. An increase in spending by any of the four sectors--household, business, government, and foreign--shifts the aggregate demand curve to right. A decrease in spending by these four sectors shifts the aggregate demand curve to left.

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