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April 24, 2018 

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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Set Up
  • Demand Review
  • Bring On Utility
  • Choices
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: A Simple Choice
  • One Good
  • Demand For A Good
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Complex Choices
  • Two Goods
  • How Much Of Each?
  • A Short Cut?
  • Income And Prices
  • Rule Of Consumer Equilibrium
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: On To Demand
  • A Generalized Choice
  • A Price Change
  • Marginal Utility Curve
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Beyond Demand
  • Many Choices
  • Demand Elasticity
  • Market Supply
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Utility and Demand

    This lesson undertakes a detailed investigation into the decision-making process underlying the purchase of goods and services. Doing so provides a behind-the-scenes examination of market demand, offering an explanation for the inverse relation between demand price and quantity demanded that is the law of demand.

    • The first unit of this lesson, The Set Up, begins with a review of the market demand and consumer demand theory.
    • In the second unit, A Simple Choice, we examine the decision-making process for purchasing a single good.
    • The third unit, Complex Choices, then complicates matters slightly by adding a second good into the decision making mix.
    • The fourth unit, On To Demand, presents the rule of consumer equilibrium that captures the essence of this decision-making process and how it helps explain the law of demand.
    • The fifth unit and final unit, Beyond Demand, explores how consumer demand theory provides insight to noneconomic choices, demand elasticity, and market supply.

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    BANK RESERVES

    Assets used by banks to back up deposits and to conduct daily transactions, including withdrawing funds, "cashing" checks, and transferring funds between banks to "clear" checks. Reserves, also termed bank reserves or legal reserves, includes two types of assets: vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits. These legal reserves are then divided between require reserves and excess reserves. Required reserves are used to back up deposits and excess reserves are used for loans.

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at an auction hoping to buy either storage boxes for your family photos or a large, stuffed giraffe. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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    Lombard Street is London's equivalent of New York's Wall Street.
    "You have to find something that you love enough to be able to take risks, jump over the hurdles and break through the brick walls that are always going to be placed in front of you. If you don't have that kind of feeling for what it is you're doing, you'll stop at the first giant hurdle. "

    -- George Lucas

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