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LEAKAGE: A non-consumption uses of income, including saving, taxes, and imports. Leakages are combined with injections in the injection-leakage model used to identify equilibrium aggregate output in Keynesian economics. The notion of leakage is best viewed through the circular flow, in which saving, taxes, and imports are "leaked" out of the main flow between output, factor payments, national income, and consumption.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Exchange
  • What It Is
  • Equilibrium
  • Competition
  • Number
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: The Numbers
  • Schedule
  • Market Agreement
  • Equilibrium
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: A Graph
  • The Curves
  • The Equilibrium
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Adjustment
  • Self-Correction
  • Shortage
  • Surplus
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Efficiency
  • What It Is
  • Efficient Markets
  • Too Little Production
  • Too Much Production
  • Inefficiency
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Market Equilibrium

    In this lesson, we'll see how buyers (discussed in the demand lesson) come together with sellers (discussed in the supply lesson) to exchange commodities using a market. More precisely, this lesson develops an abstract market model, or market analysis, that we can use to explain and understand a wide range of real world exchanges.

    • This lesson begins in the first unit, The Exchange, with an overview of the basic exchange process underlying markets, including the notion of equilibrium, the roles played by price and quantity, and the importance of competition.
    • In the second unit, The Numbers, we work through a simple market analysis using demand and supply schedules, highlight both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions.
    • The third unit, A Graph, then carefully examines the notion of market equilibrium using demand and supply curves, which generates the widely used graphical model of the market.
    • Moving onto the fourth unit, Adjustment, we use the graphical market model to investigate the automatic market responses to shortages and surpluses.
    • The lesson concludes in the fifth unit, Efficiency, by considering the relation between market exchanges and efficiency.

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    AUTONOMOUS EXPORTS

    Exports to the foreign sector that do not depend on domestic income or production (especially national income or gross domestic product). Exports depend on foreign income or production, but not on domestic income or production. While other expenditures have both autonomous and induced components, exports are exclusively autonomous. Autonomous exports are a key part of the autonomous part of net exports. Induced net exports are due to induced imports.

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    ORANGE REBELOON
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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the shopping mall wanting to buy either a rotisserie oven that can also toast bread or a flower arrangement in a coffee cup for your father. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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    Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
    "Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value. "

    -- Albert Einstein

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