March 17, 2018 

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INDIRECT BUSINESS TAXES: The official entry in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis for sales taxes. Indirect business taxes are one key difference between national income (the resource cost of production) and gross/net domestic product (the market value of production). For further discussion of this point, see gross domestic product and national income or net domestic product and national income. Indirect business taxes, abbreviated IBT, is generally less than 10% of gross domestic product (7-8% is common).

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Exchange
  • What It Is
  • Equilibrium
  • Competition
  • Number
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: The Numbers
  • Schedule
  • Market Agreement
  • Equilibrium
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: A Graph
  • The Curves
  • The Equilibrium
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Adjustment
  • Self-Correction
  • Shortage
  • Surplus
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Efficiency
  • What It Is
  • Efficient Markets
  • Too Little Production
  • Too Much Production
  • Inefficiency
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Market Equilibrium

    In this lesson, we'll see how buyers (discussed in the demand lesson) come together with sellers (discussed in the supply lesson) to exchange commodities using a market. More precisely, this lesson develops an abstract market model, or market analysis, that we can use to explain and understand a wide range of real world exchanges.

    • This lesson begins in the first unit, The Exchange, with an overview of the basic exchange process underlying markets, including the notion of equilibrium, the roles played by price and quantity, and the importance of competition.
    • In the second unit, The Numbers, we work through a simple market analysis using demand and supply schedules, highlight both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions.
    • The third unit, A Graph, then carefully examines the notion of market equilibrium using demand and supply curves, which generates the widely used graphical model of the market.
    • Moving onto the fourth unit, Adjustment, we use the graphical market model to investigate the automatic market responses to shortages and surpluses.
    • The lesson concludes in the fifth unit, Efficiency, by considering the relation between market exchanges and efficiency.

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    The demand curve for the output produced by a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic at the going market price. The firm can sell all of the output that it wants at this price because it is a relatively small part of the market. As a price taker, the firm has no ability to charge a higher price and no reason to charge a lower one. The market price facing a perfectly competitive firm is also average revenue and, most important, marginal revenue.

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