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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE DETERMINANT: A ceteris paribus factor that affects aggregate expenditures, but which is assumed constant when the aggregate expenditure line is constructed. Changes in any of the aggregate expenditures determinants cause the aggregate expenditure line to shift. While a wide variety of specific ceteris paribus factors can cause the aggregate expenditure line to shift, it's usually most convenient to group them into the four, broad expenditure categories -- consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. The reason is that changes in these expenditures are the direct cause of shifts in the aggregate expenditure line. If any determinant affects aggregate expenditures it MUST affect one of these four expenditures.

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Lesson 20: Federal Reserve System | Unit 4: Monetary Policy Page: 13 of 20

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Expansionary monetary policy increases aggregate demand up to full employment and contractionary monetary policy decreases aggregate demand back to full employment.
  • Expansionary policy increases the money supply and shifts the AD curve rightward. This is used to correct a recessionary gap and achieve long-run equilibrium.
  • Contractionary policy decreases the money supply and shifts the AD curve leftward. This is used to correct an inflationary gap and achieve long-run equilibrium.
  • Note that monetary policy and interest rates are closely connected.

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EXCHANGE RATES, AGGREGATE DEMAND DETERMINANT

One of several specific aggregate demand determinants assumed constant when the aggregate demand curve is constructed, and that shifts the aggregate demand curve when it changes. An increase in exchanges rates causes an increase (rightward shift) of the aggregate curve. A decrease in the exchanges rates causes a decrease (leftward shift) of the aggregate curve. Other notable aggregate demand determinants include interest rates, the money supply, inflationary expectations, consumer confidence, and the federal deficit.

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Paper money used by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts prior to the U.S. Revolutionary War, which was issued against the dictates of Britain, was designed by patriot and silversmith, Paul Revere.
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