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December 14, 2018 

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ACCOUNTING COST: The actual outlays or expenses incurred in production that shows up a firm's accounting statements or records. Accounting costs, while very important to accountants, company CEOs, shareholders, and the Internal Revenue Service, is only minimally important to economists. The reason is that economists are primarily interested in economic cost (also called opportunity cost). That fact is that accounting costs and economic costs aren't always the same. An opportunity or economic cost is the value of foregone production. Some economic costs, actually a lot of economic opportunity costs, never show up as accounting costs. Moreover, some accounting costs, while legal, bonified payments by a firm, are not associated with any sort of opportunity cost.

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Lesson 4: Production Possibilities | Unit 3: The Curve Page: 11 of 24

Topic: Slope and Cost <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The slope of a line is measured by calculating the change in the value measured on the vertical axis divided by the change in the value measured on the horizontal axis.
  • Another way of saying this is to take the rise over the run.

    risechange in shoes
    slope =---- =--------------------------
    runchange in calibrators

  • Slope between I and J is -70. Rise is a decrease of 70. Run is an increase of 1.
The slope of the production possibilities curve is the opportunity cost of the good measured on the horizontal axis, which in our example is clock calibrators.

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LOGROLLING

The trading of votes to ensure a favorable outcome for two or more separate decisions. Logrolling occurs when each of two people agree to vote for the other's project to ensure that both are passed. A votes for B and B votes for A. Logrolling is commonly used when neither decision is able to obtain the necessary majority of the votes needed for passage on their own accord. Explicit logrolling is when each of two voters agree to cast separate votes for two separate programs. Implicit logrolling is when two separate programs or policies are combined into a single package, which is then subject to a single vote. Logrolling can generate either an efficient or an inefficient allocation of resources, meaning that efficiency is irrelevant to the logrolling process.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time surfing the Internet wanting to buy either storage boxes for your winter clothes or several magazines on time travel. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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In the late 1800s and early 1900s, almost 2 million children were employed as factory workers.
"In order to create there must be a dynamic force, and what force is more potent than love."

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