March 23, 2018 

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LONG-RUN EQUILIBRIUM, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION: Relative freedom of entry and exit ensures that, in the long run, every firm in a monopolistically competitive industry earns exactly a normal profit, receiving neither an economic profit, nor incurring an economic loss. This result is achieved because entry and exit affects the market supply curve, which affects the overall market price, each firm's demand curve, and the range or prices it can charge. Each firm's demand curve adjusts until the profit-maximizing price is exactly equal to average total cost (both short run and long run).

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Lesson 4: Production Possibilities | Unit 5: Investment Page: 23 of 24

Topic: Scarcity <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Scarcity is THE economic problem. Investment in capital goods is the source of economic growth and progress that lessens the scarcity problem.
  • Some investment is good, but lot of investment is not necessarily better.
  • If we produce only capital goods and no consumption goods, eventually, with no consumption, people would die.
  • The trick is to strike a balance between capital goods and consumption goods.
  • Answering this question puts us into the realm of normative economics.

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A quantification of the satisfaction of wants and needs achieved through the consumption of goods and services. In principle, utility measurement can take one of two forms: (1) cardinal, which is based on numerical values (1, 2, 3, etc.) and (2) ordinal which is based on rankings (first, second, third, etc.). While the hypothetical instructional analysis of utility relies on cardinal utility, ordinal utility is a more realistic way to measure satisfaction.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through the yellow pages seeking to buy either a wall poster commemorating yesterday or pink cotton balls. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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Al Capone's business card said he was a used furniture dealer.
"It is not the straining for great things that is most effective; it is the doing of the little things, the common duties, a little better and better."

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