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SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION: (SEC) A federal government agency that regulates the trading of corporate stock to protect investors against unscrupulous practices. Like a number of other federal regulatory agencies, the SEC was established in the 1930s--1934 to be exact. The impetus for its formation was to prevent investors from manipulating the stock market and to prevent other practices that contributed to the 1929 stock market crash. The SEC has all sorts of rules governing the stock market, including information disclosure, insider trading, speculation, and use of credit.

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Lesson 7: Market | Unit 1: The Exchange Page: 5 of 22

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  • The concept of markets as voluntary trades among buyers and sellers that is used to address the scarcity problem.
  • Four key points about markets:
    • They combine demand and supply.
    • They trade goods, services, and resources.
    • They are voluntary.
    • They are analyzed over a give time period.
  • Examples of different markets, ranging from a formal, organized stock market to a less formal, less organized rummage sale.
  • The nature of market equilibrium as a balance of the forces of demand and supply.
  • How market equilibrium is indicated by the equilibrium quantity and equilibrium price.
  • The importance of competition to the efficient operation of markets and how the number of participants determines competition among buyers and sellers.


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AVERAGE VARIABLE COST

Total variable cost per unit of output, found by dividing total variable cost by the quantity of output. When compared with price (per unit revenue), average variable cost (AVC) indicates whether or not a profit-maximizing firm should shut down production in the short run. Average variable cost is one of three average cost concepts important to short-run production analysis. The other two are average total cost and average fixed cost. A related concept is marginal cost.

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BLUE PLACIDOLA
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time lost in your local discount super center wanting to buy either a 50 foot extension cord or a combination CD player, clock radio, and telephone (with answering machine). Be on the lookout for cardboard boxes.
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Much of the $15 million used by the United States to finance the Louisiana Purchase from France was borrowed from European banks.
"The greatest things ever done on Earth have been done little by little. "

-- William Jennings Bryan

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Average Propensity to Consume
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