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ACTIVIST POLICY: Government policies that involve explicit actions designed to achieve specific goals. A common type of activist policy is that designed to stabilize business cycles, reduce unemployment, and lower inflation, through government spending and taxes (fiscal policy) or the money supply (monetary policy). Activist policies are also term discretionary policies because they involve discretionary decisions by government. A contrast to activist policy is automatic stabilizers that help stabilize business cycles without explicit government actions.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Exchange
  • What It Is
  • Equilibrium
  • Competition
  • Number
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: The Numbers
  • Schedule
  • Market Agreement
  • Equilibrium
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: A Graph
  • The Curves
  • The Equilibrium
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Adjustment
  • Self-Correction
  • Shortage
  • Surplus
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Efficiency
  • What It Is
  • Efficient Markets
  • Too Little Production
  • Too Much Production
  • Inefficiency
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Market

    In this lesson, we'll see how buyers (discussed in the demand lesson) come together with sellers (discussed in the supply lesson) to exchange commodities using a market. More precisely, this lesson develops an abstract market model, or market analysis, that we can use to explain and understand a wide range of real world exchanges.

    • This lesson begins with an overview of the basic exchange process underlying markets, including the notion of equilibrium, the roles played by price and quantity, and the importance of competition.
    • In the second unit we work through a simple market analysis using demand and supply schedules, highlight both equilibrium and disequilibrium conditions.
    • The third unit then carefully examines the notion of market equilibrium using demand and supply curves, which generates the widely used graphical model of the market.
    • Moving onto the fourth unit, we use the graphical market model to investigate the automatic market responses to shortages and surpluses.
    • The lesson concludes in the fifth unit by considering the relation between market exchanges and efficiency.

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    RESOURCE QUANTITY, AGGREGATE SUPPLY DETERMINANT

    One of three categories of aggregate supply determinants assumed constant when the short-run and long-run aggregate supply curves are constructed, and which shifts both aggregate supply curves when it changes. An increase in a resource quantity causes an increase (rightward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. A decrease in a resource quantity causes a decrease (leftward shift) of both aggregate supply curves. The other two categories of aggregate supply determinants are resource quality and resource price. Specific determinants falling into this general category include population, labor force participation, capital stock, and exploration. Anything affecting the quantity of labor, capital, land, and entrepreneurship is also included.

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time surfing the Internet looking to buy either a stretchable, flexible watch band or high-gloss photo paper that works with your printer. Be on the lookout for a thesaurus filled with typos.
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    Cyrus McCormick not only invented the reaper for harvesting grain, he also invented the installment payment for selling his reaper.
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    -- Henry David Thoreau, philosopher

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