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PAR VALUE: The stated, or face, value of a legal claim or financial asset. For debt securities, such as corporate bonds or U. S. Treasury securities, this is amount to be repaid at the time of maturity. For equity securities, that is, corporate stocks, this is the initial value set up at the time it is issued. Par value, also called face value, is not necessarily, and often is not, equal to the current market price of the asset. A $10,000 U.S. Treasury note, for example, has a par value of $10,000, but might have a current market price of $9,950. The difference between par value and current price contributes to the yield or return on such assets. An asset is selling at a discount if the current price is less than the par value and is selling at a premium if the current price is more than the par value.

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Lesson 7: Market | Unit 4: Adjustment Page: 16 of 22

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  • How competitive markets tend to be self-correcting because nonequilibrium prices create shortages and surpluses that move the price back to the equilibrium level.
  • How shortages, with quantity demanded greater then quantity supplied, are created for prices below the equilibrium level.
  • 3. Why a shortage causes price to increase back to the equilibrium level.
  • How surpluses, with quantity demanded less then quantity supplied, are created for prices above the equilibrium level.
  • Why a surplus causes price to decrease back to the equilibrium level.


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AUTONOMOUS CONSUMPTION

Household consumption expenditures that do not depend on income or production (especially disposable income, national income, or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in consumption. Autonomous consumption is best thought of as a baseline or minimum level of consumption that the household sector undertakes in the unlikely event that income falls to zero. It is measured by the intercept term of the consumption function or the consumption line. The alternative to autonomous consumption is induced consumption, which does depend on income.

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BEIGE MUNDORTLE
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for a downtown retail store wanting to buy either a genuine down-filled snow parka or throw pillows for your living room sofa. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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Okun's Law posits that the unemployment rate increases by 1% for every 2% gap between real GDP and full-employment real GDP.
"Success is more a function of consistent common sense than it is of genius. "

-- An Wang, industrialist

IGARCH
Integrated Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity
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