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AD: The abbreviation for aggregate demand, which is the total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

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Lesson 8: Market Shocks | Unit 2: Determinants Page: 6 of 20

Topic: Supply <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

Five basic supply determinants:
  • Resource prices: Higher prices of inputs such as labor, land, and raw material, decrease supply.
  • Technology: Improved technology means an increase in supply.
  • Prices of other goods: An increase in the price of a substitute-in-production, decreases supply. An increase in the price of a complement-in-production, increases supply.
  • Seller's expectations: If sellers expect higher prices tomorrow, they decrease supply today.
  • Number of sellers: More sellers mean more supply.

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MARGINAL COST AND LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL RETURNS

Decreasing then increasing marginal cost, reflected by a U-shaped marginal cost curve, is the result of increasing then decreasing marginal returns. In particular the decreasing marginal returns is caused by the law of diminishing marginal returns. As such, the law of diminishing marginal returns affects not only the short-run production of a firm but also the cost of short-run production. This translates into a positively-sloped supply curve for profit-maximizing competitive firms.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a flea market trying to buy either a pair of red goulashes with shiny buckles or a handcrafted bird feeder. Be on the lookout for spoiled cheese hiding under your bed hatching conspiracies against humanity.
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General Electric is the only stock from the original 1896 Dow Jones Industrial Average remaining in the current index.
"You can't build a reputation on what you are going to do."

-- Henry Ford, automaker

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