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WEIGHT GAINING: An activity in which the transportation cost of the output is greater than the transportation cost of the inputs. Using the term weight to mean transportation cost, an activity is said to gain weight if the cost of moving the output to the market is greater than the cost of getting the inputs to the factory. A weight-gaining activity has a greater attraction to, and tends to locate near, the market for the output.

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Lesson 9: Macro Basics | Unit 3: Business Cycles Page: 8 of 16

Topic: Instability <=PAGE BACK | PAGE NEXT=>

The macroeconomy is unstable. It has periods of falling production, rising inflation, and/or high unemployment.

Business cycles are recurring expansions and contractions of the aggregate economy.

  • Expansion is a general period of increasing economic activity, or rising production, which is associated with low or falling unemployment and high or rising inflation.
  • Contraction is a general period of decreasing economic activity, or falling production, which is associated with high or rising unemployment and low or falling inflation.
Counter-cyclical policies to stabilize the business cycle:
  • During an expansion, try to cause a contraction.
  • During a contraction, try to cause an expansion.

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MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION

A market structure characterized by a large number of small firms, similar but not identical products sold by all firms, relative freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and extensive knowledge of prices and technology. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are perfect competition, monopoly, and oligopoly. Monopolistic competition approximates most of the characteristics of perfect competition, but falls short of reaching the ideal benchmark that IS perfect competition. It is the best approximation of perfect competition that the real world offers.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the downtown area hoping to buy either a set of luggage without wheels or a how-to book on wine tasting. Be on the lookout for jovial bank tellers.
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It's estimated that the U.S. economy has about $20 million of counterfeit currency in circulation, less than 0.001 perecent of the total legal currency.
"When I look back on all these worries, I remember the story of the old man who said on his deathbed that he had had a lot of trouble in his life, most of which had never happened. "

-- Winston Churchill, British statesman

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