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ABSTRACTION: Simplifying the complexities of the real world by ignoring (hopefully) unimportant details while doing economic analysis. Abstraction is often criticized because it's, well, it's JUST NOT REALISTIC. However, when done correctly (ignoring things that JUST DON'T MATTER), then the pursuit of knowledge is greatly enhanced by abstraction. For example, when travelling cross country along a high-speed interstate highway, a paper road map is a handy tool. It shows towns and cities along the way, the major intersections, rest stop locations, and other important points of interest. However, it ignores unimportant details. It doesn't realistically show the location of every tree, bush, or blade of grass. Why bother? This information won't enhance your road trip.

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Lesson 3: Scarcity | Unit 4: College Cost Page: 13 of 17

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With foregone income the costs of attending college is closer to $70,000 than the $7,000 tuition payment.
  • Overall total depends on subjective values placed on other activities, like sleeping and entertainment. (Note the second rule of subjectivity.)
  • What about other costs of attending college? It depends on the whether or not you give up something to pursue the activity of attending college.
  • Room and board? Because you would have eaten and slept even if had you not attended college, room and board is not an expense of going to college, it's just an expense of life.
  • Opportunity cost results from giving up something.

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AD VALOREM TAX

A tax specified as a percentage of the price or value of a good, service, asset, or other activity. Ad valorem taxes tend to be broad based, imposed on activities such as income and retail sales. In fact, the two most important ad valorem taxes are income taxes and sales taxes. People pay a percentage of their incomes in income taxes or a percentage or the value of their purchases in sales taxes, regardless of the amount of time spent working or the quantities of goods purchases. An alternative is a per unit tax, with is a tax specified as a percentage of the physical quantity of a good.

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APLS

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale seeking to buy either a bottle of blackcherry flavored spring water or a travel case for you toothbrush. Be on the lookout for rusty deck screws.
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Lombard Street is London's equivalent of New York's Wall Street.
"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. "

-- Albert Einstein, physicist

NAA
National Association of Accountants
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