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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE DETERMINANT: A ceteris paribus factor that affects aggregate expenditures, but which is assumed constant when the aggregate expenditure line is constructed. Changes in any of the aggregate expenditures determinants cause the aggregate expenditure line to shift. While a wide variety of specific ceteris paribus factors can cause the aggregate expenditure line to shift, it's usually most convenient to group them into the four, broad expenditure categories -- consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. The reason is that changes in these expenditures are the direct cause of shifts in the aggregate expenditure line. If any determinant affects aggregate expenditures it MUST affect one of these four expenditures.

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BACKWARD-BENDING LABOR SUPPLY CURVE: A labor supply curve that is positively-sloped for relatively small quantities of labor and negatively-sloped for relatively large quantities of labor. In other words, workers supply larger quantities of labor in response to a higher wage when the wage is relatively low. However, when the wage reaches a relatively high level, further increases in the wage entice workers to reduce the quantity supplied. The supply curve thus bends back on itself. The reason for the negatively-sloped, backward-bending segment rests with the tradeoff between labor and leisure. Workers decide to "spend" a portion of their higher wage "buying" more leisure time, and thus working less. The end result is that the higher wage decreases the quantity of labor supplied.

     See also | labor | supply curve | labor-leisure tradeoff | leisure | income effect | normal good |


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COMPARATIVE STATICS

The technique of comparing the equilibrium resulting from a change in a determinant, or shock to a model, with the equilibrium that existed prior to the change. Comparative statics is the primary analytical technique used in the study of economics.

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ORANGE REBELOON
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale trying to buy either several orange mixing bowls or clothing for your pet dog. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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In the Middle Ages, pepper was used for bartering, and it was often more valuable and stable in value than gold.
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Community Reinvestment Act, Contemporaneous Reserve Accounting
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