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December 10, 2022 

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LABOR UNION: An organization of workers or employees who act jointly to negotiate with their employers over wages, fringe benefits, working conditions, and other facets of employment. The main function of unions is to provide a balance for the market control exerted over labor by big business.

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BACKWARD-BENDING LABOR SUPPLY CURVE: A labor supply curve that is positively-sloped for relatively small quantities of labor and negatively-sloped for relatively large quantities of labor. In other words, workers supply larger quantities of labor in response to a higher wage when the wage is relatively low. However, when the wage reaches a relatively high level, further increases in the wage entice workers to reduce the quantity supplied. The supply curve thus bends back on itself. The reason for the negatively-sloped, backward-bending segment rests with the tradeoff between labor and leisure. Workers decide to "spend" a portion of their higher wage "buying" more leisure time, and thus working less. The end result is that the higher wage decreases the quantity of labor supplied.

     See also | labor | supply curve | labor-leisure tradeoff | leisure | income effect | normal good |


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BACKWARD-BENDING LABOR SUPPLY CURVE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: December 10, 2022].


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INTERCEPT, INVESTMENT LINE

The intercept of the investment line indicates autonomous investment, investment that does not depend on the level of income or production. This can be thought of as investment that the business sector undertakes regardless of the state of the economy. Autonomous investment is affected by the investment expenditures determinants, which cause a change in the intercept and a shift of the investment line.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching infomercials hoping to buy either any book written by Isaac Asimov or a how-to book on building remote controlled airplanes. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
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