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ALLOCATION EFFECT: The goal of imposing taxes to change the allocation of resources, that is, to discourage the production, consumption, or exchange or one type of good usually in favor of another. This is one of two reasons that governments impose taxes. The other reason is the revenue effect. Because people would rather not pay taxes, taxes create disincentives to produce, consume, and exchange. If society deems that less of a particular good, such as alcohol, pollution, or cigarettes are "bad," then a tax can reduce its production and consumption, and thus change the allocation of resources.

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PERFECT COMPETITION, PROFIT MAXIMIZATION: A perfectly competitive firm is presumed to produce the quantity of output that maximizes economic profit--the difference between total revenue and total cost. This production decision can be analyzed directly with economic profit, by identifying the greatest difference between total revenue and total cost, or by the equality between marginal revenue and marginal cost.

     See also | perfect competition, loss minimization | perfect competition, short-run supply curve | short-run production alternatives | breakeven output | perfect competition, revenue division |


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PRODUCER SURPLUS

The revenue that producers obtain from a good over and above the price paid. This is the difference between the minimum supply price that sellers are willing to accept and the price that they actually receive. A related notion from the demand side of the market is consumer surplus.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs looking to buy either a pair of gray heavy duty boot socks or a 50-foot blue garden hose. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
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