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June 15, 2024 

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LONG-RUN AVERAGE COST CURVE: A curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve (usually abbreviated LRAC) can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

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PERFECT COMPETITION, SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION ANALYSIS: A perfectly competitive firm produces the profit-maximizing quantity of output that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost. This production level can be identified using total revenue and cost, marginal revenue and cost, or profit. Because a perfectly competitive firm faces a perfectly elastic demand curve, it efficiently allocates resources by equating price and marginal cost. In addition, the marginal cost curve above the average variable cost curve is the perfectly competitive firm's short-run supply curve.

     See also | perfect competition, total analysis | perfect competition, marginal analysis | perfect competition, efficiency | perfect competition, short-run supply curve | perfect competition, breakeven output | perfect competition, profit analysis | short-run production alternatives | perfect competition, profit maximization | perfect competition, loss minimization |


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INCOME EARNED BUT NOT RECEIVED

The three types of income earned but not received (IEBNR) by the factors of production are Social Security taxes, corporate profits taxes, and undistributed corporate profits. IEBNR is subtracted from national income to calculate personal income.

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