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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

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PRINCIPAL-AGENT PROBLEM: A source of inefficiency in the way large businesses and governments are operated that occurs because those making decisions (agents) have different goals than those affected by the decisions (principals).

     See also | information | public choice | moral hazard | adverse selection | logrolling | fifth rule of imperfection | sixth rule of ignorance |


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INFLATION PROBLEMS

Two notable problems are associated with inflation--uncertainty and haphazard redistribution. Inflation, especially inflation that varies from month to month and year to year, makes long-term planning quite difficult. Prices, wages, taxes, interest rates, and other nominal values that enter into consumer, business, and government planning decisions can be significantly affected by inflation. Moreover, inflation tends to redistribute income and wealth in a haphazard manner--some people win and some people lose. This redistribution might not be that desired by society, failing to promote any of the basic economic goals of efficiency, equity, stability, growth, or full-employment.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex seeking to buy either a pleather CD case or a how-to book on fine dining. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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A half gallon milk jug holds about $50 in pennies.
"Concentration is the secret of strength in politics, in war, in trade, in short in all management of human affairs. "

-- Ralph Waldo Emerson, philosopher, poet

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