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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE LINE: A line representing the relation between aggregate expenditures and gross domestic product used in the Keynesian cross. The aggregate expenditure line is obtained by adding investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports to the consumption line. As such, the slope of the aggregate expenditure line is largely based on the slope of the consumption line (which is the marginal propensity to consume), with adjustments coming from the marginal propensity to invest, the marginal propensity for government purchases, and the marginal propensity to import. The intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line identifies the equilibrium level of output in the Keynesian cross.

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TECHNOLOGY: The sum total of knowledge and information that society has acquired concerning the use of resources to produce goods and services. This technology often takes the form of scientific knowledge (the best combination of chemicals to make a long-lasting floor wax), but can also be plain old common sense (irrigate during a drought, not during a flood). Whether scientific or not, technology affects the technical efficiency with which resources are combined in production. An improvement in technology is thus an increase in the technical efficiency of production--more output with given inputs or fewer inputs for a given output. Technology is often embodied in capital goods. Bigger, better, faster, and less expensive computers are the result of advances in silicon chip technology. However, technology is also embodied in labor as human capital.

     See also | information | resources | capital | science | technical efficiency | output | input | human capital | economic growth | living standard | scarcity | investment | education |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, SHORT-RUN PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

A perfectly competitive firm produces the profit-maximizing quantity of output that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost. This production level can be identified using total revenue and cost, marginal revenue and cost, or profit. Because a perfectly competitive firm faces a perfectly elastic demand curve, it efficiently allocates resources by equating price and marginal cost. In addition, the marginal cost curve above the average variable cost curve is the perfectly competitive firm's short-run supply curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex hoping to buy either a computer that can play video games and burn DVDs or a black duffle bag with velcro closures. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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The first "Black Friday" on record, a friday marked by a major financial catastrophe, occurred on September 24, 1869 -- A FRIDAY -- when an attempted cornering of the gold market induced a financial crises and economy-wide depression.
"We succeed only as we identify in life, or in war, or in anything else, a single overriding objective, and make all other considerations bend to that one objective. "

-- President Dwight D. Eisenhower

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